Not really everything, but here is a few tips for eggs in Thailand. I will post photos for each of these descriptions soon.
Chicken Eggs – These are brown shelled eggs for fresh eggs, always. Eggs are always sold at room temperature, I have never seen refrigerated eggs for sale in the many years I have been here. Brown eggs, if you buy them when room temp, you can store them in your house at room temp, or you can refrigerate them. If you refrigerate them, do not decide later you want to store them at room temp. When buying brown shelled eggs, go for local mom and pop stores or open markets that have them in carton (a flat) on display, pick out your eggs and pay. The local eggs will normally have a sheen to them, maybe even chicken poop on them, perfectly fine, as the sheen is a coating naturally applied by the chicken laying the egg, it is another step to prevent bacteria from getting into the egg. Eggs bought in grocery stores like Tesco, will have been washed, meaning that extra step to prevent bacteria is removed.
Duck Eggs – These come in three colors, white and light green shells and pink shells. The white and light green eggs are fresh eggs. Same rule applies, if you buy at room temp, you can store at room temp or refrigerate, but do not take out from the fridge and store at room temp. Duck eggs have a stronger taste but are quite good. Ducks eggs are also slightly larger than chicken eggs, and not as pointy on one end like a chicken egg. I use duck eggs in potato salad all the time. If you have a recipe that calls for a large egg or two, use a duck egg.
Salted Duck Eggs – These are white shelled eggs and as the name suggests, have a very salty taste. This is a way of preserving eggs. The eggs sit in brine for 2-3 weeks, then hard boiled. The salt does go through the shell as it is brined. These are great eggs to add to a dish and the egg adds the salt flavor to the dish. These normally come in pack of 4 or 5 eggs and will normally have a photo that shows it is hard boiled and cut in half.
Preserved Eggs – These are colored pink. These have a strong taste, I am NOT a fan of these. I would consider the odor from a peeled pink egg right up there with a rotten egg.
Quail Eggs – These are the tiny eggs, with the shell being speckled black, brown, and white. Hard boiled they are great in salads whole. There is even food vendors that do nothing but fry these eggs and sell them. These come in a small bag with a wooden skewer, they are fried in a pan specially made for this. 10 fried eggs is about 15 or 20 Baht. You can also buy hard boiled eggs for the same price, makes for a great snack or addition to a salad.
Brown Hard Boiled Eggs – When you take a bus or van from one city to another, normally they stop along the way for 20-30 minutes for a meal break. The places they stop at can be purpose built for the buses or vans, or can just be a simple road side kitchen, either way, the food available is delicious, wholesome good food, that is very cheap, with meals costing 20-30 Baht. Some of these kitchens will have 5-6 pans of various curries and such, and normally a pan of peeled, but brown hard boiled chicken eggs that are brown and in brown water. These are excellent! These are eggs that are cooked in a 5 Spice mix and have a great flavor, very well worth trying if you have never had these.
Street Vendor Cooked Eggs – These are eggs that have a hole in one end, scrambled inside, black pepper added then added to a skewer and cooked on a charcoal grill. They are cooked and hot when you buy them, it is just like a scrambled egg with pepper added. These are excellent. Each egg is 7 to 10 Baht.